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           您所在的位置:新疆中公考研 > 備考資料 > 考研試題 > 2019新疆考研英語一試題及答案解析匯總


          發布日期:2020-07-09 21:16:11  來源:新疆中公考研

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          Section ⅠUse of English


          Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

          Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones.  1  of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones  2  on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize.  3  you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you  4  can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate  5  to civilization, one of which is to follow the land…

          When you find yourself well  6  a trail, but not in a completely  7  area, you have to answer two questions: Which  8  is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water.  9  , if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should  10  see signs of people.

          If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be  11  how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.

          Another  12  : Climb high and look for signs of human habitation.  13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to   14   gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15  the woods. Head toward these  16  to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for  17  light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.

          18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the  19  we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can  20  you to civilization.

          1. [A]Some      [B]Most      [C]Few      [D]All



          2. [A]put     [B]take     [C]run     [D]come


          【解析】run on battery表示手機用電池發動,運行。其他選項:Put on (穿上;使運轉);take on (承擔;呈現);come on (快點;開始),語義不通順。故正確答案為[C] run。

          3. [A]Since     [B] If      [C]Though      [D]Until


          【解析】空格所在句譯文:____你在沒有電話或指南針的情況下迷路,____找不到北方,我們有一些技巧可以幫助你導航____文明。此處為假設的情況,故填入if(如果)符合上下文的表達。其余選項:Since (因為;自從), though (雖然), until (直到)帶入后,語義不通順。故正確答案為[B] If。

          4. [A]formally      [B] relatively      [C] gradually      [D] literally


          【解析】空格所在句譯文:____你在沒有電話或指南針的情況下迷路,____找不到北方,我們有一些技巧可以幫助你導航____文明。此處literally表示確實地,真正地,帶入原文語義通順:你的確找不到北方。其余選項:Formally (正式地),relatively(相對地),gradually(逐漸地)帶入后,語義不通順。故正確答案為[D] literally.

          5. [A] back     [B] next      [C] around      [D] away


          【解析】空格所在句譯文:____你在沒有電話或指南針的情況下迷路,____找不到北方,我們有一些技巧可以幫助你導航____文明。前文講lost(迷路),此處填入back(回到)文明之地相互呼應,故正確答案為[A] back。

          6. [A]onto      [B]off     [C]across      [D]alone


          【解析】空格所在句的句意為:當你____路徑,但不是完全______的區域,你需要回答兩個問題:在這個特殊區域,哪兒條路是下坡?哪兒里有最近的水源?通過后半句的問題,能夠了解到前面是當你偏離軌道,迷失蹤跡的時候。B選項off (遠離,離開)符合語義要求;A選項onto(在…之上),C選項across(穿過,橫穿),D選項alone(獨自地,單獨地)帶入空格后,語義不通順,均排除。故正確答案為B選項off。

          7. [A]unattractive     [B] uncrowded      [C]unchanged      [D]unfamiliar



          8. [A]site     [B]point      [C]way      [D]place



          9. [A]So      [B]Yet      [C]Instead      [D]Besides



          10. [A]immediately      [B] intentionally      [C]unexpectedly      [D] eventually


          【解析】空格所在句的句意:所以如果你下山,沿著你找到的水一直走,你______會看到人類的跡象……,空格處所需的副詞需要符合本句語境并是句子語義通順。D選項eventually (最后,終于)符合語義要求;A選項immediately(立即,立刻),B選項intentionally(故意地,有意地),C選項unexpectedly(意外地,出乎意料地)帶入空格后,語義不通順,均排除。故正確答案為D選項eventually。

          11. [A]surprised      [B]annoyed      [C]frightened      [D]confused


          【解析】空格所在句提到:If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be surprised how quickly spotting a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings(如果你之前去過這個地方,一定要注意熟悉的景象,你或許會____快速識別出一塊特征明顯的巖石或樹木能幫助你恢復記憶)。此句明顯體現了積極褒義的感情色彩,根據這個線索,可直接確定A選項surprised為正確答案,即:你或許會感到驚訝……

          12. [A] problem      [B]option      [C]view      [D]result


          【解析】本文第一段提到:“如果你在沒有電話或指南針的情況下迷路了,而且你真的找不到北方,我們有一些技巧可以幫助你回到文明社會”。空格所在處提到:另一個___: 登到高處尋找有人類住所的標志,因此此處的another__應該與tricks構成總分關系,即,空格處所填的名詞應與tricks語義相近。只有B選項option(選擇,辦法)符合要求。

          13. [A] Above all      [B]In contrast      [C] On average      [D] For example


          【解析】空格前提到“另一個辦法就是登高來尋找有人類居住的標志”,關鍵詞為:look for signs;空格后提到“在茂密森林里,你應該能夠發現由于道路、電纜、火車軌道和人們在樹林中開辟的其他道路而造成的樹木之間的空隙”,關鍵詞為:spot gaps。而look for與spot語義相近,signs為抽象名詞,gaps為具體名詞,因此空格前后表是例證關系或總分關系,故D選項for example(例如)為正確答案。

          14. [A]bridge   [B]avoid    [C]spot     [D]separate


          【解析】本題空格所在句是對前面句子的例證,故主題一致,因此空格處需填入的動詞需和look for語義相近,故選擇spot(識別,發現)。

          15. [A] from      [B] through      [C]beyond      [D] under


          【解析】空格處需填入介詞來和前面的動詞carve及后面的名詞woods構成順暢的語義搭配。Carve____woods:在森林中開辟道路, B選項 through用法最恰當,故為正確答案。

          16. [A] posts      [B]links      [C]shades      [D]breaks


          【解析】本題空前有一個指示代詞these,通過語義,“these 16 ” 指代上文的“roads, train tracks, and other paths”,并由定語從句“people carve through the woods”(人們在森林中開辟的……)修飾。從語義上來看,breaks最合適。

          17. [A] artificial     [B] mysterious              [C] hidden      [D] limited


          【解析】本空所處的句子“scan … for 17 light sources”,與本段開頭 “look for sign of human habitation ”結構一致,語義相關,空格處所填形容詞和human意思相近,選擇artificial “人造的”。除此之外,17題后面“such as fires and streetlights,”所列舉的兩種光源的共同特點就是artificial。

          18. [A] Finally       [B] Consequently   [C] incidentally [D] Generally


          【解析】空后為條件狀語從句“assuming you ”,與上文的“If you”構成順接遞進關系,選項中,只用finally表順接。

          19. [A] memories   [B] marks              [C] notes        [D] belongings


          【解析】空后的定語從句“we leave on the landscape”,由語義得知此處應該填“標記”,所以選marks。

          20. [A] restrict       [B] adopt               [C] lead          [D] expose


          【解析】所填動詞需要與主語 “tire blazes, tire tracks and other fearures”(輪胎,輪胎痕跡和其他標記),賓語you,以及不定式 to civilization(文明)之間構成完整語義,所以此處填lead“引導”最合適。


          Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

          Part A


          Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

          Text 1

          Financial regulations in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.

          “Short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.

          The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”。

          In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.

          In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.

          Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.

          Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.

          21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the_________.

          A. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility

          B. help corporations achieve larger profits

          C. build a new system of financial regulation

          D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives


          【解析】根據題干關鍵詞“paragraph 1”和“one motive in imposing the new rule”回文定位在第一段第三句“The main purpose of this ‘clawback’ rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions.”,可以得出答案。

          22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate_________.

          A. the conditions for generating quick profits

          B. governments’ impatience in decision-making

          C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies

          D. “short-termism” in economics activities




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