發布日期：2020-07-09 21:31:55 來源：新疆中公考研
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1 __ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3 __ the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection.__4__ , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5 __ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.
The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, __9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and __10__ a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__ . Newlyseds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may __12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.
Divorce is legal and easy to __14__ ,but not common. Divoreced persons are __15__with some disapproval. Each spouse retains __16__ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__ up: The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__ the woman must wait ten months.
1. [A] by way of [B] on behalf of [C] as well as [D] with regard to
[標準答案] [C] as well as
[選項分析] 因為考查邏輯關系，所以需要我們先對填空前后的原文信息做定位分析：空格處身處大環境not only…but also之中，這是一個明顯的并列關系，表示“不僅……而且……”，該空后面的those指代前文出現的“parents and friends”，顯然“the young man”與“the young woman”為并列關系，表示“與他本人以及伴侶的父母朋友相關”，所以答案只能是[C]項as well as 也，又。[A]項by way of 通過，[D]項with regard to 關于，[B]項on behalf of 代表。
2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C] compete with [D] decide on
[標準答案] [D] decide on
[選項分析] 根據該句的主語a young man與賓語a likely spouse的關系，答案只能是[D]項decide on“決定”，表示自己決定自己的配偶。[B]項provide for為……提供準備……，provide為及物動詞，直接跟賓語，不需要加介詞；[C]項compete with“與……競爭”，[A]項adapt to“適用”。
3. [A] close [B] remew [C] arrange [D] postpone
[標準答案] [C] arrange
[選項分析] 該句意思為：他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母_____婚姻談判。四個選項中，[A]項close 關閉；[B]項renew 更新，恢復；[D]項postpone 推遲；這三項語義不正確，只有[C]項arrange“安排”符合語境。
4. [A] Above all [B] In theory [C] In time [D] For example
[標準答案] [B] In theory
[選項分析] 邏輯判斷題主要是看前后兩句的含義，前面說“他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母安排婚姻談判，或者完全由父母選擇對象，不給孩子選擇的機會。”空格后面說“女方可以否決她父母所選擇的對象。”這兩句之間顯然是相反的關系，且有一個may，更證明[B]項In theory“理論上說”的正確性，而其他選項[A]項Above all最重要的是，[C]項In time 準時，[D]項For example舉例，均不符合題意。
5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless
[標準答案] [C] After
[選項分析] 根據下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other…”可知，只有對象選擇好后，父母才會去調查對方，顯然表達的是時間先后順序，所以只有after才對。其他選項[A]項Although 盡管， [B]項Lest 以免，唯恐，[D]Unless 除非，否則都不符合題意。
6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through
[標準答案] [A] into
[選項分析] 這里主要是看marry與相關介詞的固定搭配及句意理解。這里marry into就是指“通過婚姻得到[成為]……的一員”，而其他選項均沒有這層含義。
7. [A] since [B] or [C] but [D] so
[標準答案] [C] but
[選項分析] 根據上文“以前婚禮會持續三天”，出處句子意為“到了20世紀80年代，婚禮只持續一天半”，顯然與前文發生轉變，為對比關系，因此選擇[C]項but 但是。
8. [A] copy [B] test [C] recite [D] create
[標準答案] [C] recite
[選項分析] 空格處需要填一個動詞，和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配，[C]項recite 有“吟誦、朗誦”的意思，與所給短語搭配最為合理，譯為“吟誦祝福的祈禱文”。
9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying
[標準答案] [D] tying
[選項分析] 本題需要根據上下文語義分析，空格處需要搭配后文“棉線”，縱觀四個選項[A]項 折疊，[B]項 堆積，[C]項 包裹，[D]項 系上，根據后文的“around the bride’s and groom’s wrists 在新郎和新娘的腰間”，只有[D]項“將在圣水中浸過的棉線系在新郎和新娘的腰間”符合句意。
10. [A] passing [B] lighting [C] hiding [D] serving
[標準答案] [A] passing
[選項分析] 原文空格需要填寫一個動詞與后文“around a circle”來搭配，譯為“將蠟燭傳一圈”，故[A]項“傳遞”為正確選項。[B]項 點亮，[C]項 隱藏，[D]項 服務。
11. [A] meeting [B] collection [C] association [D] union
[標準答案] [D] union
[選項分析] 本句語義為“將蠟燭繞著幸福完婚和受人尊敬的夫妻傳遞一圈來祝福 ”，[D]項 結合，引申為“婚姻”之意；根據語境，[D]項正確。
12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D] live
[標準答案] [D] live
[選項分析] 本題比較簡單。根據語義“根據傳統，新婚夫婦要搬到妻子父母家，與父母____一年”，[D]項“生活”為最佳答案。[C]項 交易，[B]項 分開，[A]項 成長。
13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] if [D] for
[標準答案] [B] until
[選項分析] 本句意為“_____他們在附近建造一棟新房子”，[A]項 然而，[B]項 直到，[D]項因為，[C]項 如果，結合前文“新婚夫婦根據傳統要和女方家人生活一年”，前后存在一定的時間關系，[B]項“直到”最符合原文語境，搭配最為合理。
14. [A] avoid [B] follow [C] challenge [D] obtain
[標準答案] [D] obtain
[選項分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common. 該句句意為“離婚是合法的，且相對容易____。”[A]項avoid避免，[B]項follow跟隨，[C]項challenge挑戰，質疑，[D]項obtain獲得，實現。根據關鍵詞“legal”可知這里表達的是正面的意思，再根據句意選擇[D]項。
15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed
[標準答案] [C] viewed
[選項分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. 離婚的人 一些不認可。本段第一句提到“離婚是合法的且相對容易得到批準，但是不常見。”這句其實是在說明離婚并不常見的原因，[A]項isolated孤立，[B]項persuaded勸說，[C]項viewed看待，[D]項exposed接觸，受到……的影響，[C]項最符合句意。
16. [A] whereever [B] whatever [C] whenever [D] however
[標準答案] [B] whatever
[選項分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage. 17小題四個選項都是動詞，所以該句意思為：夫婦雙方保有財產，這個財產是他或她進婚姻的。結合[A]項 whereever“無論何地；任何（地方）=any place where(定從)”；[B]項 whatever“無論什么；任何（東西）=anything that/any+N that”；[C]項 whenever無論何時；任何時間=any time when；[D]項 however無論如何；無論多么。根據語義，這里應該不是讓步的關系，而且填的這個詞還要能修飾property。因此，選擇[B]項，等于retains any property that he or she……。
17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed
[標準答案] [B] brought
[選項分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage，結合[A]項 changed“改變”，[B]項 brought “帶來”，[C]項 shaped“形成”，[D]項 pushed“推，逼迫”。結合語境只有[B]項符合句意，意為“把財產帶入婚姻”。
18. [A] invested [B] divided [C] donated [D] withdrawn
[標準答案] [B] divided
[選項分析] ...and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. 結合[A]項invested投資；[B]項divided分配；分開；[C]項donated 捐贈；[D]項withdrawn撤出，提取。根據語義應該是共同財產被（夫妻雙方）平分，因此選擇[B]項。
19. [A] warms [B] clears [C] shows [D] breaks
[標準答案] [C] shows
[選項分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 該句語義為離過婚的人或許會再婚，但是性別偏見 。[A]項warm up加熱，熱身；[B]項clear up（天氣）變晴，收拾，消除；[C]項show up顯現；[D]項break up分裂，分開；根據句意，選擇[C]項。
20. [A] while [B] so that [C] once [D] in that
[標準答案] [A] while
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.
The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.
Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.
The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.
The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.
The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.
In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.
Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.
21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?
[A] Physical beauty would be redefined.
[B] New runways would be constructed.
[C] Websites about dieting would thrive.
[D] The fashion industry would decline.
【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined
【解析】 推斷題。根據France定位到文章前兩段，第一段講法國決定時裝業失去了定義（define）形體美（physical beauty）的絕對權力。法國的立法者通過了一項法律，雇用超瘦的模特屬于犯罪，議會也禁止網站通過推崇極端節食“鼓動過度瘦弱”。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他們建議美麗不應該以傷害身體健康為代價的外表來界定。”由此可知，法國通過立法手段來改變法國時裝業模特超瘦的現狀，即[A]項的“形體美將會被重新定義”，是對原文內容的合理推斷。[B]項“將會建造新的舞臺”，[C]項“有關節食的網站將會興起”，[D]項“時裝業將會衰退”，均不能從文中推測出來，屬于“無中生有”。
22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____
[A] heightening the value of.
[B] indicating the state of.
[C] losing faith in.
[D] doing harm to.
【答案】 [D] doing harm to
【解析】猜詞題。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他們建議美麗不應該以 身體健康為代價的外表來界定。”impinging on后面的賓語為“health”，即對健康的某種影響。根據第二段第三句“對超瘦模特的禁令似乎不僅僅是在防止模特挨餓致死——正如曾有人這么做過的”，可見法國目前的對美麗的定義導致了有人為了保持身材，挨餓致死，因此推測出這一短語在這里的意思為“侵犯，傷害”，[D]項“對……有害”正確。[A]項“增強了……的價值”，[B]項“反映了……的狀態”，[C]項“對……失去信心”均不符合句意。
23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?
[A] The French measures have already failed.
[B] New standards are being set in Denmark.
[C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.
[D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.
【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark
【解析】細節題。根據第五段第二句話“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麥，它正嘗試為模特設定自愿的標準……”，可知[B]項“在丹麥新的標準正在被設定”是對原文的同義替換。[A]項“法國的措施失敗了”；[C]項“不再有來自同行執法的壓力”，文章第五段第二句后半句提到“images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement”，屬于“正反混淆”；[D]項“它固有的問題變得更嚴重了”，文中第五段只提及時裝業有固有的問題，并未提及“變得更嚴重”，屬于“無中生有”。
24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____
[A] setting a high age threshold for models.
[B] caring too much about models’ character.
[C] showing little concern for health factors.
[D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.
【答案】 [C] showing little concern for health factors
25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?
[A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry
[B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty
[C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France
[D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
【答案】 [D] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.
A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.
At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.
The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.
The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?
Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.
26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside
[A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.
[B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.
[C] is fully backed by the royal family.
[D] is not well reflected in politics.
【答案】 [D] is not well reflected in politics
【解析】細節題。根據題干回到原文精確定位到首段最后一句：“然而民意調查顯示英國人把鄉村與皇室家族、莎士比亞和國家醫療服務體系一起視為使他們為自己國家感到最自豪的事物，這擁有有限的政治支持”，該句中的polls“民意調查“對應題干中的public sentiment，“this has limited political support”對應[D]項“is not well reflected in politics”，意為“在政治上沒有得到很好的反響”，是對原文的同義替換。[B]項“給國家醫療服務體系帶了了很多益處”，[A]項“直到莎士比亞時期才開始”，[C]項“得到了皇室家族的全力支持”，文章均未提及，屬于“無中生有”。