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          2018新疆考研英語二試題及答案解析匯總

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          2018考研英語二真題及答案解析完整版

          SectionⅠ Ⅰ Use of English
          Directions:
          Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B],
          [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
          Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be
          painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in
          Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will 2
          to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .
          In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the
          Wisconsin school of Business tested students’ willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in
          an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the
          researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an
          electric shock when clicked.
          Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told
          only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which
          ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew
          that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of
          fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
          The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or
          shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good
          instinct—it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such 13 can backfire.
          The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.
          Unhealthycuriosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were
          encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to
          see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s
          curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term
          20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity,”Hsee says. In other words, don’t
          read online comments.
          1.A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve
          2.A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret
          3.A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead
          4.A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat
          5.A.trial B.message C.review D.concept
          6.A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt
          7.A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though
          8.A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen
          9.A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to
          10.A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget
          11.A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling
          12.A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from
          13.A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence
          14.A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive
          15.A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist
          16.A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict
          17.A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend
          18.A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty
          19.A.how B.why C.where D.whether
          20.A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies
          Section II Reading Comprehension
          Part A
          Directions:
          Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C]
          or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
          Text 1
          It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give
          his students a better future.
          Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high
          school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but
          practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th
          president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?
          As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained
          by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded
          chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
          But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost
          a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’s
          for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
          On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not
          the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high
          school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for
          our kids,and rightfully so.
          But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything
          less—misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a
          bachelor’s degree opens moredoors.Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are
          middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of
          workers are adequately trained.
          In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political
          head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is
          staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs
          most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is
          trying to fill that gap.
          Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks
          overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
          21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of.
          A.academic training
          B.practical ability
          C.pioneering spirit
          D.mechanical memorization
          22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.
          A.have a stereotyped mind
          B.have no career motivation
          C.are financially disadvantaged
          D.are not academically successful
          23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.
          A.used to have more job opportunities
          B.used to have big financial concerns
          C.are entitled to more educational privileges
          D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing
          24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.
          A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
          B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
          C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education
          D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
          25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.
          A.tolerant
          B.cautious
          C.supportive
          D.disappointed
          Text 2
          While fossil fuels—coal,oil,gas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy
          supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and
          solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world:They now account for
          more than half of new power sources going on line.
          Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund
          cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummetingprices of renewables,
          especially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind
          turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
          In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,
          for example,wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest
          of the world takes the lead,notably China and Europe,the United States is also seeing a
          remarkable shift.In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10
          percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.
          President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic
          growth.In a recent speech in Iowa,he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But
          that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide
          36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being
          attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
          The question“what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?”has
          provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making
          their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
          The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers,who are placing big bets on
          battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive
          investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
          While there’s a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change
          in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in
          slowing climate change.What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy
          may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
          26.The word“plummeting”(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to.
          A.stabilizing
          B.changing
          C.falling
          D.rising
          27.According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America.
          A.is progressing notably
          B.is as extensive as in Europe
          C.faces many challenges
          D.has proved to be impractical
          28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .
          A.wind is a widely used energy source
          B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
          C.tech giants are investing in clean energy
          D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply
          29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
          A.Its application has boosted battery storage.
          B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
          C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
          D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
          30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.
          A.will bring the US closer to other countries
          B.will accelerate global environmental change
          C.is not really encouraged by the US government
          D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
          Text 3
          The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing—Amazon has
          just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bn,but two
          years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service,which
          doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and
          finely detailed web of its users’friendships and social lives.
          Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to
          Facebook identities,but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through.Even
          without knowing what was in the messages,the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was
          enormously revealing and still could be.What political journalist,what party whip,would not
          want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’senemies are
          currentlyplotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460
          shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
          Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power.But it is
          clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy.
          By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace,
          to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too.
          Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this
          is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them.The users of their services are
          not their customers.That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and
          Google,the two virtual giants,dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media
          and entertainment companies.
          The product they’re selling is data,and we,the users,convert our lives to data for the benefit
          of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphidsfor the honeydew they produce
          when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield.Ants keep predatory
          insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It
          doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship,even if both sides benefit.
          31.According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.
          A.digital products
          B.user information
          C.physical assets
          D.quality service
          32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.
          A.worsen political disputes
          B.mess up customer records
          C.pose a risk to Facebook users
          D.mislead the European commission
          33.According to the author,competition law.
          A.should serve the new market powers
          B.may worsen the economic imbalance
          C.should not provide just one legal solution
          D.cannot keep pace with the changing market
          34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.
          A.they are not defined as customers
          B.they are not financially reliable
          C.the services are generally digital
          D.the services are paid for by advertisers
          35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.
          A.a win-win business model between digital giants
          B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants
          C.the benefits provided for digital giants’customers
          D.the relationship between digital giants and their users
          Text 4
          To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy,Cal Newport,author of Deep work:
          Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world,recommends building a habit of “deep
          work”—the ability to focus without distraction.
          There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats
          dedicated to a specific task;developing a daily ritual;or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing
          moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to
          determine your length of focus time and stick to it.
          Newport also recommends “deepscheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more
          done in less time.“At any given point,Ishould have deep work scheduled for roughly the next
          month.Once on the calendar I protect this time like Iwould a doctor’s appointment or important
          meeting”,he writes.
          Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your
          day—in particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy:The Power of
          Disorder to Transform Our Lives,points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates
          into two groups:some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities;others were told
          to plan activities and goals in much more detail,day by day.
          While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective
          when it came to the execution of tasks,they were wrong:the detailed daily plans demotivated
          students.Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list
          ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.
          In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime,or as
          Newport suggests,“be lazy.”
          “Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice;it is as indispensable to be brain as
          Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,”he
          argues.
          Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School,believes this
          counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains
          operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task,they tend to be
          more efficient.
          “What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the
          focus and unfocus circuits in their brain”. says Pillay.
          36.The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________.
          A.keep to your focus time
          B.list your immediate tasks
          C.make specific daily plans
          D.seize every minute to work
          37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________.
          A.distractions may actually increase efficiency
          B.daily schedules are indispensable to studying
          C.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals
          D.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected
          38. According to Newport, idleness is ________.
          A.a desirable mental state for busy people
          B.a major contributor to physical health
          C.an effective way to save time and energy
          D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work
          39. Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused _______.
          A.can result in psychological well-being
          B.canbring about greater efficiency
          C.is aimed at better balance in work
          D.is driven by task urgency
          40. This text is mainly about _______.
          A.ways to relieve the tension of busy life
          B.approaches to getting more done in less time
          C.the key to eliminating distractions
          D.the cause of the lack of focus time
          Part B
          Directions:
          Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its
          corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column.
          Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
          A.Just say it
          B.Be present
          C.Pay a unique compliment
          D.Name, places, things
          E.Find the “me too”s
          F.Skip the small talk
          G.Ask for an opinion
          Five ways to make conversation with anyone
          Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link
          gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.
          You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or
          the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.
          Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with
          strangers.
          41.____________
          Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says“I
          want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to
          say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I
          know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.
          Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not
          talking with you now!
          I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it
          simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you
          can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”.
          42.____________
          It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with
          and you want to make this talk memorable.
          Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of“hi”,“hello”, “how are you?”and“what’s going on?”you
          will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.
          So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how
          much people are willing to share if you just ask.
          43.____________
          When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and
          that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you
          start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the
          conversation becomes a lot easier.
          44.____________
          Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and
          if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.
          So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication
          wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.
          45.____________
          You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you
          may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!
          So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places
          they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you
          talk about.
          When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing.
          So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.
          That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every
          person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!
          Section Ⅲ Ⅲ Translation
          46.Directions:
          Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the
          ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
          A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of
          occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well. The
          boy is convinced that if he reads enough. He can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so
          he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that
          his parents have to institute a “no reading policy”at the dinner table.
          That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of
          the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so
          nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world
          works.“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,”Gates says.
          Section Ⅳ Ⅳ Writing
          Part A
          47.Directions:
          Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith.
          Write him an email to
          1)apologize and explain the situation, and
          2)suggest a future meeting.
          You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
          Do not use your own name. Use“Li Ming” instead.
          Do not write your address.(10 points)
          Part B
          48.Directions:
          Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing you should
          1)interpret the chart and
          2)give your comments
          You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

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