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           您所在的位置:新疆中公考研 > 備考資料 > 考研試題 > 2021全國碩士研究生考試考研英語二部分試題及答案

          2021全國碩士研究生考試考研英語二部分試題及答案

          發布日期:2021-01-06 13:28:36  來源:新疆中公考研

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          2022考研熱點動態2021考研初試已結束,中公考研網在考研初試后及時為各位考研考生梳理2021全國碩士研究生考試考研英語二部分試題及答案,內容,中公考研各研究院院長針對2021考研初試試題進行試題變化及難度解析,更有各科目試題及解析:2021考研各科試題及參考答案解析匯總供考生參考。

          Section I Use of English

          Directions:

          Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

          It’s not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder,        1       , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components.           2      one and the others become distorted.

          Travel on a London bus and you’ll           3      see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to             that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are       5      . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.

          Why? Because the target is        6        . People complained that buses were late and infrequent.        7       , the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were     8      or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they         9       hit cyclists. If the target was changed to        10         , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more             11       drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.

          There is another     12      : people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you      13      that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a   14    is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now ballad as a two-hour flight.

          The     15     of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well     16     others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a     17     . Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

          This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria     18     critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to     19     just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better     20     the objective.

          1. [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover

          2. [A] Emphasize [B] Identify [C] Assess [D] Explain

          3. [A] nearly [B] curiously [C] eagerly [D] quickly

          4. [A] claim [B] prove [C] check [D] recall

          5. [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed

          6. [A] punctuality [B] hospitality [C] competition [D] innovation

          7. [A] Yes [B] So [C] Besides [D] Still

          8. [A] hired [B] trained [C] rewarded [D] grouped

          9. [A] only [B] rather [C] once [D] also

          10. [A] comfort [B] revenue [C] efficiency [D] security

          11. [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] cautious [D] diligent

          12. [A] purpose [B] problem [C] prejudice [D] policy

          13. [A] reported [B] revealed [C] admitted [D] noticed

          14. [A] break [B] trip [C] departure [D] transfer

          15. [A] moral [B] background [C] style [D] form

          16. [A] interpret [B] criticize [C] sacrifice [D] tolerate

          17. [A] task [B] secret [C] product [D] cost

          18. [A] leading to [B] calling for [C] relating to [D] accounting for

          19. [A] specify [B] predict [C] restore [D] create

          20. [A] modify [B] review [C] present [D] achieve

          答案及解析

          Section I Use of English

          1. 【答案】B(however)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。觀察選項可知,本題考查邏輯關系。比較前后兩句語義,即It’s not difficult to...(做……不難)和it is much harder to...(做……難得多),由not difficult和much harder可知,前后兩句語義相反,B項however(提示轉折關系)符合原文邏輯關系。本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項therefore(因此)提示因果關系,C項again(又、再)提示并列關系,D項moreover(而且)提示遞進關系,均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          2. 【答案】A(Emphasize)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。句中one和the other提示對比關系,and前后語義相反。由and后的the others become distorted(其余的就被扭曲了)可知,A項Emphasize(強調)符合原文邏輯關系,即,強調一個,其余則被忽略扭曲。本題答案為A項。

          干擾選項:B項Identify(識別),C項Assess(評估),D項Explain(解釋)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          3. 【答案】D(quickly)

          【解析】語境題。代詞this指代前一句的觀點,即,設定目標會帶來負面后果:只強調一點,其余則被忽略扭曲。本句是對該觀點的舉例論述。對比各項語義:A項nearly(幾乎),B項curiously(好奇地),C項eagerly(渴望地)和D項quickly(快速地)。其中D項符合原文語義,即:坐上倫敦公交車,你很快就會看到這點是如何體現在司機身上的(Travel on a London bus and you’ll quickly see how this works with drivers)。本題答案為D項。

          4. 【答案】C(check)

          【解析】語境題。觀察本段句式特點,可知,本段首句(Watch people get on and show their tickets)與下文為總分關系。作者隨后以自問自答的形式,引出在公交車上乘車買票這一場景中幾個群體的表現。由前文Do people get on without paying? Of course!(人們會逃票上車嗎?當然!)對乘客表現的提問可知,本句要對檢票員(inspectors)是否盡到檢票責任提問。因此C項check(檢查)符合原文語義。本題答案為C項。

          干擾選項:A項claim(宣稱),B項prove(證明)和D項recall(記起)均不符合原文語義。

          5. 【答案】B(ignored)

          【解析】語境題。借助前文Are there inspectors to  4   that people have paid? Possibly, but very few(有檢察員檢查大家是否支付嗎?可能有,但是很少)可知,本句對趕公交的人這個群體的提問也涉及到是否買票的問題。根據前文中各個群體的表現可知,他們買票與否很可能也無人注意。B項ignored(被忽視)符合語義,本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項threatened(被威脅),C項mocked(被嘲弄)和D項blamed(被責備)均不符合原文語義。

          6. 【答案】A(punctuality)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。本句為段首句,本段下文與段首句為總分關系,語義一致。借助下文中drivers were    8     or punished according to the time they took(司機根據所用的時長獲得  8   或懲罰),以及And drivers hit their targets(司機們達到他們的目標),可知,本句的target(目標)與時間有關。A項punctuality(準時)符合原文邏輯關系。

          干擾選項:B項hospitality(好客),C項competition(競爭)和D項innovation(創新)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          7. 【答案】B(So)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。觀察選項可知,本題考查句間邏輯關系。比較前后兩句語義,即People complained that buses were late and infrequent(人們抱怨公交車晚點且班次較少)和the number of buses and bus lanes were increased(公交車和公交車道的數量增加),可知二者為因果關系,即,人們抱怨為因,增加公交車數量為果。B項So(所以)符合原文邏輯關系。本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項Yes(確實如此),C項Besides(此外)和D項Still(仍然)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          8. 【答案】C(rewarded)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。or(或者)提示選擇關系,由or后面的punished(懲罰)可知,C項rewarded(獎勵)符合原文邏輯,即,根據所花時長,司機們或接受獎勵或遭受懲罰。本題答案為C項。

          干擾選項:A項hired(被雇傭),B項trained(被培訓)和D項grouped(被分組)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          9. 【答案】D(also)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。觀察選項可知,本題考查句間邏輯關系。比較上句drivers hit these targets與本句they  9   hit cyclists,可發現,hit為原詞復現,提示兩句為平行結構,D項also(也)符合原文邏輯,即,兩個hit兩個目標:前者hit到的是真正目標;后者hit到的是cyclists,意為誤撞。由此引出設定目標帶來的負面后果。本題答案為D項。

          干擾選項:A項only(只有),B項rather(寧可)和C項once(一旦)均不符合原文語義。

          10. 【答案】B(revenue)

          【解析】語境題。根據后半句you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing(你將會看到更多檢票員和更敏感的價格)可知,本題與金錢有關。B項revenue(收益)符合原文語義。本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項comfort(舒適),C項efficiency(效率)和D項security(安全)均不符合原文語義。

          11. 【答案】C(cautious)

          【解析】語境題。本句選項均為修飾drivers(司機)的形容詞,根據本句If the criterion changed to safety(如果把標準改為安全性)可知,修飾司機的形容詞需要體現司機安全駕駛的能力。因此D項cautious(謹慎的)符合原文語義,即,你將會看到更加謹慎且遵守交通規則的司機。本題答案為C項。

          干擾選項:A項friendly(友好的),B項quiet(安靜的)和D項diligent(勤勉的)均不符合原文語義。

          12. 【答案】B(problem)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。another提示本句與前文語義一致。根據上句But both these criterion would be at the expense of time(此處criterion可理解為target,意為:但這兩個標準都將以犧牲時間為代價),可知,前文在說設立目標所致的負面影響。B項problem(問題)可與前文的負面影響進行呼應,符合原文邏輯關系。本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項purpose(目的),C項prejudice(偏見)和D項policy(政策)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          13. 【答案】D(noticed)

          【解析】語境題。比較各項語義,A項reported(報道),B項revealed(揭露),C項admitted(承認)和D項noticed(注意到),可知,D項符合原文語義,即:你是否注意到,飛機起飛遲了一小時,卻仍然準時到達?本題答案為D項。

          14. 【答案】B(trip)

          【解析】語境題。根據13題所在句語義“飛機起飛遲了一小時,卻仍然準時到達”,及下句A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight(一小時的航程按兩個小時收費)可知,此處,航空公司改變的是trip(旅程、航程)應花的時長。本題答案為B項。

          干擾選項:A項break(休息),C項departure(離開)和D項transfer(轉移)均不符合原文語義。

          15. 【答案】A(moral)

          【解析】語境題。the story指代前文航空公司為準時到達而修改航班實際時長,本句是對該故事的總結。A項moral(寓意)與story組成“the moral of the story”,意為“該故事的寓意”,符合原文語義。本題答案為A。

          干擾選項:B項background(背景),C項style(風格)和D項form(形式)均不符合原文語義。

          16. 【答案】C(sacrifice)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。one和others提示對比,and前后內容語義相反。而且,本句與前一句所組成的結構“Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well  16   others”與首段最后兩句的結構Most work-related behaviors have multiple components.  2   one and the others become distorted相似,語義也相近。借助首段對應部分的the others become distorted可知,C項符合原文邏輯關系,即:選擇一個標準,你可能就要犧牲另一個。本題答案為C項。

          干擾選項:A項interpret(詮釋),B項criticize(批評)和D項tolerate(容忍),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          17. 【答案】D(cost)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。本句中的but提示前后語義相反。由前半句Everything can be done faster and made cheaper(每件事都可以完成得很快,成本很低)可知,D項cost(代價)符合原文邏輯關系,即:但這是有代價的。本題答案為D項。

          干擾選項:A項task(任務),B項secret(秘密)和C項product(產品)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          18. 【答案】C(relating to)

          【解析】語境題。本題考查連接multiple criteria和critical factors的形容詞短語語義。比較各選項語義,A項leading to(導致),B項calling for(要求),C項relating to(關于)和D項accounting for(對……作出解釋),可知,C項符合原文語義,即,所有好的目標都應具有與關鍵因素(如時間、金錢、質量和用戶反饋)相關的多個標準。本題答案為C項。

          19. 【答案】A(specify)

          【解析】邏輯關系題。not only ... but also提示遞進關系,借助understand可知,先確定目標才能進一步理解目標,所以A項specify(明確規定)符合原文邏輯關系,即,訣竅是不僅要確定目標的一個甚至兩個方面,而且要理解……。本題答案為A項。

          干擾選項:B項predict(預 測),C項restore(恢復)和D項create(創造)均不符合原文邏輯關系。

          20. 【答案】D(achieve)

          【解析】語境題。比較各項語義,A項modify(修改),B項review(復習)和C項present(展示)和D項achieve(實現),可知D項最符合原文語義,即,實現目標(achieve the objective)。本題答案為D。

          【新題型試題】

          Part B

          Directions:

          In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

          [A] Stay calm

          [B] Stay humble

          [C] Don’t make judgments

          [D] Be realistic about the risks

          [E] Decide whether to wait

          [F] Ask permission to disagree

          [G] Identify a shared goal

          How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You

          Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic. What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say? Here’s how to disagree with someone more powerful than you.

          41._____________________________

          You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe you haven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you, or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks. If you think other people are going to disagree too, you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking—all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It’s also a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or other public space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.

          42._____________________________

          Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about—it may be the credibility of their team or getting a project done on time. You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a higher purpose. When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal. The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.

          43._____________________________

          This step may sound overly deferential, but it’s a smart way to give the powerful person psychological safety and control. You can say something like, “I know we seem to be moving toward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasons to think that won’t work. I’d like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?” This gives the person a choice, allowing them to verbally opt in. And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.

          44._____________________________

          You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message. It sends a mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breaths can help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. Simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps the other person calm down and does the same for you. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren’t.

          45._____________________________

          Emphasize that you’re offering your opinion, not gospel truth. It may be a well-informed, well-researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion, so talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence. Instead of saying something like, “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.” Having asserted your position (as a position, not as a fact) demonstrates equal curiosity about other views. Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique. Be open to hearing other opinions.

          【新題型試題答案解析】

          41.【答案】E(Decide whether to wait)

          【解析】

          該段首句為中心句,提到“hold off on voicing your opinion”意為“別急著發表自己的意見”,該段倒數第二句也指出“delay the conversation”意為“延遲對話”,均與E項線索詞“wait”對應,所以本題選E。

          42.【答案】G(Identify a shared goal)

          【解析】

          該段首句設置提建議的情境,指出分享觀點前需要“think about what the powerful person cares about”(想想那些有權利的人關心什么), 第二句也提到“higher purpose”(更高的目標)。同時倒數第二句中的“shared goal”(共同目標)是G項實詞在原文中的復現,所以本題選G。

          43.【答案】F(Ask permission to disagree)

          【解析】

          該段倒數第二句話提出作者本段所提建議能產生的效果。“This gives” 前后連接建議內容和潛在結果。作者將具體建議內容舉例為“You can say …‘Would that be OK?’”,效果部分提到“choice”和“they say yes”,由此看出,建議是與“請求許可”相關,與F項“Ask permission”對應,所以本題選F。

          44.【答案】A(Stay calm)

          【解析】

          本題通過段首和倒數第二句解題。段首描述情境,提出建議。前半句“heart racing”和“face turning red”表明緊張的狀態,“But”用轉折結構說明需要遏制前面提到的狀態,故建議應意為“使不緊張”。倒數第二句總結評論作者本段所提的建議,其中“help the other person calm down”與A項中關鍵詞“calm”對應,所以本題選A。

          45.【答案】B (Stay humble)

          【解析】

          該段所提建議的中心句為段末句,“Be open to hearing other opinions”意為“對他人觀點保持開放態度”,與B項線索詞最為接近。且段內“invite critique”(請別人評判)也與B項“humble”謙遜和虛心的含義對應,所以本題選B。

          Section II Reading Comprehension

          Part A

          Directions:

          Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

          Text 1

          “Reskilling” is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future where a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Forum finds that on average 42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change by 2022. That is a very short timeline.

          The question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. For individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.

          With the pandemic, unemployment is very high indeed. In February, at 3.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively, unemployment rates in Canada and the United States were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent, and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.

          Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, maybe you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The effort was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish university.

          21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests ______.

          A. a controversy about the “core skills”

          B. an increase in full-time employment

          C. an urgent demand for new job skills

          D. a steady growth of job opportunities

          22. AT&T is cited to show ______.

          A. an immediate need for government support

          B. an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy

          C. the characteristics of reskilling programs

          D. the importance of staff appraisal standards

          23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada ______.

          A. have appeared to be insufficient

          B. have driven up labour costs

          C. have proved to be inconsistent

          D. have met with fierce opposition

          24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was ______.

          A. a sign of economic recovery

          B. a call for policy adjustment

          C. a change in hiring practices

          D. a lack of medical workers

          25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to ______.

          A. create job vacancies for the unemployed

          B. retrain their cabin staff for better services

          C. prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs

          D. finance their staff’s college education

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